Synopsis: : Water Resources Engineering Principles and Practice 2nd Revised Edition, Reprint
This Book presents a comprehensive treatment of the various dimensions of Water resources engineering. The fundamental principles and Design concepts relating to various structures are clearly highlighted. The practical application of design concepts is emphasised throughout the book.
The text is profusely illustrated by a Large number of detailed Drawings and
photographs. Several worked out examples are also included for a better understanding of the concepts.
Practice problems and questions from various examinations are given for exercise and self-test.
This revised Edition includes
1. A new chapter on River Diversion Head Works Statistical analysis of Rainfall and run-off data.
2. Infiltration indices and Storage capacity of reservoirs.
3. Design of Sarda type canal drop.
4. Additional photographs, diagrams and examples.
The book would serve as an ideal text for B.E. Civil Engineering students and AMIE candidates. Practising engineers and candidates appearing in various competitive examinations including GATE, UPSC and IES would also find this book very useful.
Satya Narayana Murty Challa is presently engaged in giving Special Lectures on Water Resources Engineering in the engineering colleges of Andhra University.
He obtained his B.E. degree from Madras University, securing First Class with Honours. He then joined Public Works Dept. (PWD) in the erstwhile undivided Madras state as Junior Engineer in the Tungabhadra Project. He retired as Superintending Engineer after a productive tenure of more than thirty years during which he was closely associated in the investigation, design and construction of major projects including the Hagari Aqueduct, Gotta Barrage, Godavari Barrage and the distributory system of Nagarjuna Sagar. During this period, he was on deputation for three years to the Technical Education Committee where he served as Asst. Professor in Civil Engineering in the College of Engineering, Kakinada.
Section I :
Chapter 1 : Hydrology :
General; Hydrological Cycle; Data Collection and Processing; Bench Mark Stations; Data Evaluation; Verification of Rainfall Records; Mass Curve; Correction of Records; Normal Annual Rainfall; Dependable Rainfall; Number of Rainy Days; Monsoons; Mean Annual Rainfall Over a Basin; Methods of Areal Assessment of Rainfall; Estimation of Runoff or Yield from a Catchment; Disposal of Rainfall on a Basin; Alternative Method of Calculating Runoff; Flood Discharge from a Catchment; Hydrograph; Orientation and Movement of the Storm Over a Catchment Area; Assessment of Flood Discharges; Recurrence Interval of Flood and Flood Frequency; Unit Hydrograph Method; Hydrographs from Stream Flow Data; Area Slope Method; The Effect of Environmental Disturbances or Ecological Disturbances on Hydrology; Statistical Analysis of Rainfall and Flood Frequency; Density of Rain Gauge Stations; Hyetograph and Moving Average curve; Correction of Missing Rainfall Records by Average Ratio Method; Frequency Studies for Rainfall Data; Flood Frequency; Infiltration Indices; Stream-Flow, Mass Curves and Reservoir Storage; Construction of Various Types of Unit Hydrographs; 'S' Curve Hydrograph; Using the 'S' Curve Technique; Determination of 'S' Curve Ordinates from the Unit Hydrograph.
Chapter 2 : INUNDATION Irrigation :
Introduction; Designing of Channels; Design of a Channel to Feed an Irrigation Tank from a Canal System; Causes for Failure and Remedial Measures of the Rough Stone Barriers.
Chapter 3 : MINOR IRRIGATION :
Introduction; Irrigation Tanks; Basis for Formation of Tanks; Hydrology; Storage Capacity of the Tank; Number of Fillings; Number of Rainy Days; Working Table; Minor Irrigation, Negative Aspects; Earthen Bunds; Diversion Schemes; Lift Irrigation.
Chapter 4 : Surplus WEIR :
Introduction; Estimation of Flood Discharge; Design; The Effect of Flood Absorption Capacity on the Design of the Waste Weirs.
Chapters : 5 FLUSH ESCAPE :
Introduction; Example; Design.
Chapter 6 : SURPLUS ESCAPE-CORE WALL TYPE :
Introduction; Example; Maximum Flood Discharge; Weir; Length of Aprons.
Chapter 7 : IMPROVEMENTS TO EXISTING WEIRS :
Chapter 8 : TANK SLUICE WITH A Tower HEAD :
Example; Design; Ayacut; Vent-way; Sluice Barrel; R.C. Slab; Side Walls; Earth Pressure; Weight Transmitted by the Roof Slab; Weight of Earth on the Top Side of Wall Beyond the Slab; Weight of Earth Standing on the Slope of Side Wall; Weight of Masonry Side Wall; Stability Analysis; Tower Head; Checking the Thickness of Well at + 36.50; Checking the Thickness of Well at + 34.00; Cistern in Rear of the Barrel 66; Specifications.
Chapter 9 : DIRECT SLUICE :
Example; Hydraulic Particulars of Main Canal; Hydraulic Particulars of the Distributary; Sluice Vent-way; Design of Sluice Barrel; Section Across the Sluice Barrel; Design of Roof Slab; Design of Head Walls; Wing Walls on the Upstream Side; Return Wall; Specifications.
Chapter 10 : DESIGN OF CANAL DROPS :
Chapter 11 : SYPHON WELL DROP :
Example; Channel Up-stream of Drop; Channel Downstream of Drop; Design; Discharge Through the Syphon; Formula for Discharge of Trapezoidal Notch; Water Level for which the Notch should be Computed; Design of Notch Dimensions; Sketch of the Trapezoidal Notch; Design of Well; Upstream Well; Downstream Well; Syphon Barrel; Protective Works; Irrigation Syphon; Specifications.
Chapter 12 : CANAL DROP-NOTCH TYPE :
Example; Hydraulic Particulars of the Canal Above Drop; Hydraulic Particulars of Canal Below Drop; Trapezoidal Notch; Length of Drop Wall Between Abutments; Profile of Drop Wall; Protective Works; Length of Revetments and Bed Pitching; Causes for Failure; Specifications; Sarda type of Canal Drop.
Chapter 13 : GLACIS TYPE OF CANAL DROP :
Design; Pluming Ratio; Fixing the Crest Level; Length of Weir Crest; Upstream Side Glacis; Downstream Side Glacis; Baffle Platform; Upstream Canal Transition or Canal Approaches; Protective Works; Upstream Side Curtain Wall; Downstream Cut-off Wall Below Deflector Wall; Scour Depths; Exit Gradient; Energy Dissipation Arrangements; Design of Baffle-Wall and Friction Blocks; Checking the Thickness of Baffle Platform, Cistern and the Glacis; Abutments and Wings; Reducing the Length of Downstream Cistern; Specifications.
Chapter 14 : CANAL REGULATOR :
General; Example; Design; Ventway of the Regulator; Fixing the Ventway by the Drowning Ratio Method; Downstream of Regulator; Roadway; Pier; Length of Pier; Shutters; Loads; Abutments; Wing Walls; Section of Level Wing and Return; Splay of Wings on Both Sides; Solid Aprons for the Regulator; Revetments; Arrangements of Energy Dissipation; General; Specifications.
Chapter 15 : ESCAPES :
Chapter 16 : DESIGN OF CROSS DRAINAGE WORKS :
Introduction; Pressure Aqueducts.
Chapter 17 : UNDER-TUNNEL-CULVERT OR SYPHON AQUEDUCT-TYPE TWO :
Problem; Design; Stability of the Abutment; Pressure Under Pier; Upstream M.F.L.; Afflux over Drop Wall"; Calculation of Loss of Head by Total Energy Method; Depth of Foundations of Returns; Design of Wing Walls and Returns; Anchoring Arrangements.
Chapter 18 : SYPHON AQUEDUCT-TYPE THREE :
Design a Cross Drainage Work to Suit the Following Hydraulic Particulars; Design; Loss of Head in the Canal Due to Pluming of the Canal Water-way Through the Trough; Drainage Water-way; R.C. Trough; R.C. Side Walls; Bottom Slab; Load; Fixing the Maximum Flood Levels of Drainage; Tail Channel; Afflux on the Drop Wall; Inspection Track; Foundations of Abutments and Piers; Arc Lengths to Fix the Lengths of Drainage Wings; Canal Transitions; Downstream Transition, Checking the Depth of Foundations of Drainage Returns by Scour Depth; Causes for Failure of Cross Drainage Works; Specifications.
Chapter 19 : SOME IMPORTANT AQUEDUCTS (IN South INDIA) :
Gannavaram Aqueduct; Hagari Aqueduct; Puligedda Aqueduct.
Chapter 20 : RIVER WEIRS :
General; Classes of Weirs, Classification of River Weirs 126; Conditions for Stability of Weirs; Overturning Moments Caused by Water Thrust; Conditions of Maximum Stress on Weir; Different States of Water Pressure on Weirs; Stability Analysis; Design of Weirs on Pervious Foundations; Apron Downstream of the Weir Wall; Types of Weirs or Anicuts; Aprons Upstream of the Anicut; Consideration Governing the Design of Aprons; Classification of Pervious Foundation Soils; Theories of Percolation; Potential Theory; Khosla's Method of Independent Variables; Conclusions of Khosla's Theory of Independent Variables; Design of Aprons; Computing the Uplift Pressures without Drawing a Diagram; Plotting the Uplift Diagram; Calculating the Uplift Pressures Under the Floor Adopting Khosla's Theory of Independent Variables; Modern Trends in Weir Design; High Coefficient Profile; Standing Wave Apron.
Chapter 21 : DESIGN OF RETAINING WALLS :
General; Failure of Retaining Walls; Design; Problem; Saturated Fill.
Chapter 22 : DESIGN OF CHANNELS :
Formulae; Problem; Maximum Safe Velocities; Kennedy's Theory of Silt Transportation; Use of Modified Values of Vo; Design of Channels Using Kennedy's Critical Velocity; Problem; Regime Channels; Design of Channels Using Lacey's Equations Alone; Selection of Suitable Bed Slope; Proportion of Bed Width to Depth; Design of a Canal Section Using B/D Ratio; Side Slopes of Canal Sections; Curves in Canals and Radius of Curvature; Balanced Depth of Cutting; Remodelling of Channels; Flumes; Problem.
Chapter 23 : Comparative Study OF FLUMES WITH NORMAL DEPTH OF FLOW AND INCREASED DEPTH OF FLOW :
General; Modified Design; Advantages; Disadvantages; Specifications for Lining the Flume.
Chapter 24 : DISTRIBUTORY SYSTEM :
General; Blocks; Capacity of a Distributory; Design Criteria; Off-takes; Regulators; Escapes and Bridges; Bank Standards; Field Channels; Transitions at Canal Structures.
Chapter 25 : SPACING OF CROSS-REGULATORS AND FIXING SILL LEVELS OF OFF-TAKING SLUICES FROM MAIN CANALS AND DISTRIBUTORIES :
Introduction; Regulators; Cross-Regulators; Some of the Existing Canals Systems; Analogy; Block System of Irrigation; Spacing of Regulators; Difficulties Experienced in Water Regulation During Early Stages of Ayacut Development; Some Clarifications (Possible Question); Fixing Sill Levels of Off-takes from the Main Canals and Branches.
Chapter 26 : COMMAND AREA :
Preliminary Survey; Intensity of Irrigation; Block System of Irrigation and Preparation of Block Maps; Block Levelling; Soil Survey; Localisation of Ayacut; Command Area Development; Crops and Cropping Seasons.
Chapter 27 : SOIL-WATER Relationship :
Soil-water Relationships; Wilt Point; Crops Grown in Various Seasons; Rice Crop; Rabi Season; Intensive Agricultural Development Project (IADP); Percolation, Evaporation and Evapotranspiration; Evaporation; Evaporation of Water Takes Place When; Measurement of the Rate of Evaporation; Evapotranspiration; Methods of Irrigation; Drip Irrigation.
Chapter 28 : Crop WATER RELATIONSHIP :
Duty of Water; Tanks; Wells; Factors Affecting Duty.
Chapter 29 : WATER-LOGGING AND SALINITY :
General; Natural Causes of Water-logging; Artificial Causes of Water-logging; Effects of Water-logging; Remedial Measures to Reduce Water-logging; Reverse Irrigation; Kollair Lake Bed.
Chapter 30 : WATER Management :
Introduction; Operation Systems; National, State Level Policies on Irrigation; Management Inter Face and Structured System; Roles and Responsibilities of Government Agencies and Farmers; Tasks of the Operation and Maintenance (O & M) Group of Engineers; Operation; Maintenance; Designing the System for Planned Operation; Water Level Control.
Chapter 31 : GRAVITY DAMS :
Classification; Diversion Works; Storage Works; A Storage Work, Consists of the Following Components; Dams are Broadly Classified into Three Categories; These Masonry Dams are Classified Again Under Two Categories 194; Elementary Profile of A Gravity Dam; The Middle Third Rule; The Forces that are Acting on the Dam are; Relationship Between Pressures and Stresses; Relationship Between Various Stresses; Foundation Preparation and Treatment; Reduction of Leakage; Forces Acting on Dams; Moliter, Stevenson's Formula for Wave Height 200; Tides and Set-up; Weight of Dam; Water Thrust; Uplift Pressure at the Bottom of the Dam; Earth & Silt Pressure; Earth-Quake Forces; Intensity; Increased Water Pressure Due to Inertia of Water; Movement of Fault Due to Earthquake; The Weight of the Foundations; Effect of Atmosphere or Sub-atmospheric Effects; Requirements for Stability; Resistance to Sliding Including Shear; Tensile Stresses; Margine of Safety; Design of Solid Gravity Non-overflow Dams; Stability Analysis of a Non-overflow Gravity Dam; Computation of the Constants, Galleries in the Dam; Composite Dam.
Chapter 32 : DESIGN OF SOLID SPILLWAY GRAVITY DAMS :
General; Length of Spillway Dam; Discharging Capacity of the Spillway; End Contractions; Velocity Head Correction; Standard Crests; Equation of the Lower Nappe, with the Dam Having Shutters to a Height of 'H' Meters; Coefficient of Discharge and Discharging Capacity of the Dam; Storage of the Reservoir, Length of Spillway; Stilling Arrangements Below the Spillway Dam; Calculation of the Depth of Jet before the Jump, i.e. Depth in the Bucket; Conjugate Depth; Trajectory Type of Dissipators; Ski Jump; Energy Dissipation Methods Below a Spillway Dam; Critical Gadients and High and Low Stages of Flow; Stability Analysis; Crest Gates.
Chapter 33 : ARCH DAMS :
General; Arch Buttress Dams.
Chapter 34 : Rock FILL-DAMS :
General; Essential Components; Design; Top Width & Base Width; Face Slopes; Foundations; Upstream Cut-off; Rubble Backing of the Impervious Front Face of the Dam; Impervious Upstream Facing; Main Rock Fill; Settlement and Sluicing; Safety Against Sliding; Free Board; Composite Type of Earth-Dam.
Chapter 35 : EARTH DAMS :
General; Selection of Site and Foundations; Materials for Construction; Usual Methods of Construction of Earth Dams are as Follows; Requirements for the Safety of Earth Dams; Cut Off; Core Walls; Upstream Impervious Blanket; Stability of Earth Dams; Stability of Earth-dam Against Head Water Pressure; Economical Design; Homogeneous Section; Zonal Section; Stability Analysis of Slopes; Swedish Method of Stability Analysis; Method of Analysis; Procedure; Analysis of a Dangerous Circle with Failure Below the Toe of the Dam; The Procedure to Construct such a Circle is as Follows; Taylor's Method of Determining the Factor of Safety for Slopes.
Chapter 36 : WATER POWER :
Hydropower; Classification of Power Plants; Load Factor; Multipurpose-Projects and Generation of Power; Development of Hydropower in Stages; Sabari Basin of River Godavari; Some Important Hydropower Stations in India; Layout of a Typical Hydropower Station; They are Described in Details as Under; India's Power Potential.
Chapter 37 : SILTING OF RESERVOIRS :
Classes of Silt; Silt Deposit in Lakes and Reservoirs; Reservoir Storage; Assessment of Loss of Reservoir Capacity.
Chapter 38 : RIVER DIVERSION-HEAD WORKS :
Main Diversion Work; Purpose of the Diversion Work; Pick up Works; Other Purposes of Diversion Works; Construction of Anicuts; Previous Practice of Design of Weirs of Anicuts; Crest Shutters; Modern Design of Weirs; Barrages; Barrage Across the River Krishna at Vijayawada; Godavari Barrage; Design of the Pier; Hoist Bridge; Gate Operation Manual; Scour Sluices; Off-taking Sluices or Canal Head Regulators; Canal; Navigation Lock; Closure Period.
Chapter 39 : INTRODUCTION TO DRAWINGS :
General; Preliminary Work; Classification of Structures; Design Report; Drawing; Standards; Quality of Drawings; Preservation of Drawings.
Examination Question Papers
Section II :
Photographs of Typical Structures Referred to in the Various Chapters
Section III :
1. Surplus Weir
2. Flush Escape & Surplus Escape (Corewall Type)
3. Tank Sluice (With A Tower Head)
5. Syphon-Well Drop
6. Canal Drop (Notch Type)
7. Canal Drop (Glacis Type)
8. Canal Regulator
9. Under Tunnel (Type-II)
10. Syphon Aqueduct (Type-III)
11. Pressure Curves
12. Pressure Curves
13. Lay-Out of River Diversion Head-Works